Es gibt kaum eine andere Heilpflanze, zu der so viele Studien existieren wie zu Kurkuma bzw. dessen Inhaltsstoff Curcumin. Dabei werden diverse Indikationsgebiete aufgegriffen und untersucht, welchen gesundheitlichen Nutzen Curcumin erbringen kann. Die Seite „mitunsgesund.info“ gibt hier eine nützliche Übersicht, in welchen Bereichen die Studienlage besonders aussagekräftig ist. Darüber hinaus werden beinahe täglich neue Studien, teilweise Labor- aber auch des Öfteren Humanstudien veröffentlicht.

Anbei finden Sie eine Auflistung einiger relevanter wissenschaftlicher Studien, auf deren Aussagen sich diese Internetplattform stützt. Abgerufen werden können alle Studien auf der Datenbank Pubmed. Eingegeben werden sollten hier die Begriffe „Curcumin“, „Turmeric“ oder „Curcuma longa„. Anbei finden Sie die wichtigsten Studien, auf die sich die Aussagen dieser Website stützt.

Bioverfügbarkeit und Pharmakokinetik

Shoba, G., Joy, D., Joseph, T., Majeed, M., Rajendran, R., & Srinivas, P. S. S. R. (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Medica, 64(4), 353–356.

Pan, M. H., Huang, T. M., & Lin, J. K. (1999). Biotransformation of curcumin through reduction and glucuronidation in mice. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 27(4), 486–494.

Anand, P., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Newman, R. a., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2007). Bioavailability of curcumin: Problems and promises. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 4(6), 807–818.

Marczylo, T. H., Verschoyle, R. D., Cooke, D. N., Morazzoni, P., Steward, W. P., & Gescher, A. J. (2007). Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylcholine. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 60(2), 171–177.

Bisht, S., Feldmann, G., Soni, S., Ravi, R., Karikar, C., Maitra, A., & Maitra, A. (2007). Polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (“nanocurcumin”): a novel strategy for human cancer therapy. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 5(1), 3.

Vareed, S. K., Kakarala, M., Ruffin, M. T., Crowell, J. A., Normolle, D. P., Djuric, Z., & Brenner, D. E. (2008). Pharmacokinetics of curcumin conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Pharmacokinetics of Curcumin Conjugate Metabolites in Healthy Human Subjects., 17(6), 1411–1417.

Shaikh, J., Ankola, D. D., Beniwal, V., Singh, D., & Kumar, M. N. V. R. (2009). Nanoparticle encapsulation improves oral bioavailability of curcumin by at least 9-fold when compared to curcumin administered with piperine as absorption enhancer. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 37(3-4), 223–230.

Antony, B., Merina, B., Iyer, V. S., Judy, N., Lennertz, K., & Joyal, S. (2008). A Pilot Cross-Over Study to Evaluate Human Oral Bioavailability of BCM-95CG (Biocurcumax), A Novel Bioenhanced Preparation of Curcumin. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 70(4), 445–449.

Gota, V. S., Maru, G. B., Soni, T. G., Gandhi, T. R., Nltin Kochar, & Agarwal, M. G. (2010). Safety and pharmacokinetics of a solid lipid curcumin particle formulation in osteosarcoma patients and healthy volunteers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(4), 2095–2099.

Cuomo, J., Appendino, G., Dern, A. S., Schneider, E., McKinnon, T. P., Brown, M. J., … Dixon, B. M. (2011). Comparative absorption of a standardized curcuminoid mixture and its lecithin formulation. Comparative Absorption of a Standardized Curcuminoid Mixture and Its Lecithin Formulation., 74(4), 664–669.

Sasaki, H., Sunagawa, Y., Takahashi, K., Imaizumi, A., Fukuda, H., Hashimoto, T., … Morimoto, T. (2011). Innovative preparation of curcumin for improved oral bioavailability. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 34(5), 660–665.

Ghosh, M., Singh, A. T. K., Xu, W., Sulchek, T., Gordon, L. I., & Ryan, R. O. (2011). Curcumin nanodisks: Formulation and characterization. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, 7(2), 162–167

Lai, C. S., Wu, J. C., Yu, S. F., Badmaev, V., Nagabhushanam, K., Ho, C. T., & Pan, M. H. (2011). Tetrahydrocurcumin is more effective than curcumin in preventing azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 55(12), 1819–1828.

Kanai, M., Imaizumi, A., Otsuka, Y., Sasaki, H., Hashiguchi, M., Tsujiko, K., … Chiba, T. (2012). Dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of nanoparticle curcumin, a potential anticancer agent with improved bioavailability, in healthy human volunteers. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 69(1), 65–70.

Kurita, T., & Makino, Y. (2013). Novel curcumin oral delivery systems. Anticancer Research, 33(7), 2807–2821.

Ravichandran, R. (2013). Pharmacokinetic Study of Nanoparticulate Curcumin: Oral Formulation for Enhanced Bioavailability. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, 04(July), 291–299.

Jäger, R., Lowery, R. P., Calvanese, A. V, Joy, J. M., Purpura, M., & Wilson, J. M. (2014). Comparative absorption of curcumin formulations. Nutrition Journal, 13(1), 11.

Schiborr, C., Kocher, A., Behnam, D., Jandasek, J., Toelstede, S. and Frank, J. (2014), The oral bioavailability of curcumin from micronized powder and liquid micelles is significantly increased in healthy humans and differs between sexes. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 58: 516–527.

Prasad, S., Tyagi, A. K., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2014). Recent developments in delivery, bioavailability, absorption and metabolism of curcumin: The golden pigment from golden spice. Cancer Research and Treatment.

Sari, T. P., Mann, B., Kumar, R., Singh, R. R. B., Sharma, R., Bhardwaj, M., & Athira, S. (2015). Preparation and characterization of nanoemulsion encapsulating curcumin. Food Hydrocolloids, 43, 540–546.

Liu, W., Zhai, Y., Heng, X., Che, F. Y., Chen, W., Sun, D., & Zhai, G. (2016). Oral bioavailability of curcumin: problems and advancements. Journal of Drug Targeting, 1–9.

Esposito, T., Schettino, C., Polverino, P., Allocca, S., Adelfi, L., D’Amico, A., … Melone, M. A. B. (2017). Synergistic interplay between curcumin and polyphenol-rich foods in the mediterranean diet: Therapeutic prospects for neurofibromatosis 1 patients. Nutrients, 9(7).

Gopi, S., Jacob, J., Varma, K., Jude, S., Amalraj, A., Arundhathy, C. A., … Stohs, S. J. (2017). Comparative Oral Absorption of Curcumin in a Natural Turmeric Matrix with Two Other Curcumin Formulations: An Open-label Parallel-arm Study. Phytotherapy Research, 31(12), 1883–1891.

Lopresti, A. L. (2018). The problem of curcumin and its bioavailability: Could its gastrointestinal influence contribute to its overall health-enhancing effects? Advances in Nutrition.

Stohs, S. J., Ji, J., Bucci, L. R., & Preuss, H. G. (2018). A Comparative Pharmacokinetic Assessment of a Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation with 95% Curcumin: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 37(1), 51–59.

Jamwal, R. (2018). Bioavailable curcumin formulations: A review of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers. Journal of Integrative Medicine.

Ghosh, S. S., He, H., Wang, J., Gehr, T. W., & Ghosh, S. (2018). Curcumin-mediated regulation of intestinal barrier function: The mechanism underlying its beneficial effects. Tissue Barriers.

Entzündungen

Plummer, S. M., Holloway, K. a, Manson, M. M., Munks, R. J., Kaptein, a, Farrow, S., & Howells, L. (1999). Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression in colon cells by the chemopreventive agent curcumin involves inhibition of NF-kappaB activation via the NIK/IKK signalling complex. Oncogene, 18(44), 6013–6020.

Chainani-wu, N. (2003). Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: A component of tumeric (curcuma longa). The Journal Of Alternative And Complementary Medicine, 9(1), 161–168.

Funk, J. L., Oyarzo, J. N., Frye, J. B., Chen, G., Lantz, R. C., Jolad, S. D., … Timmermann, B. N. (2006). Turmeric extracts containing curcuminoids prevent experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Natural Products, 69(3), 351–355.

Jurenka, J. S., & Ascp, M. T. (2009). Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative Medicine Review : A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, 14(2), 141–153.

Schaffer, M., Schaffer, P. M., Zidan, J., & Bar Sela, G. (2011). Curcuma as a functional food in the control of cancer and inflammation. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(6), 588–597.

Agarwal, K. A., Tripathi, C. D., Agarwal, B. B., & Saluja, S. (2011). Efficacy of turmeric (curcumin) in pain and postoperative fatigue after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, 25(12), 3805–3810.

Shehzad, A., Rehman, G., & Lee, Y. S. (2013). Curcumin in inflammatory diseases. BioFactors, 39(1), 69–77.

Sun, J., Zhao, Y., & Hu, J. (2013). Curcumin inhibits imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation by inhibiting IL-1beta and IL-6 production in mice. PloS One, 8(6), e67078.

He, Y., Yue, Y., Zheng, X., Zhang, K., Chen, S., & Du, Z. (2015). Curcumin, inflammation, and chronic diseases: How are they linked? Molecules.

Sahebkar, A., Cicero, A. F. G., Simental-Mendia, L. E., Aggarwal, B. B., & Gupta, S. C. (2016). Curcumin downregulates human tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis ofrandomized controlled trials. Pharmacological Research, 107, 234–242.

Derosa, G., Maffioli, P., Simental-Mendia, L. E., Bo, S., & Sahebkar, A. (2016). Effect of curcumin on circulating interleukin-6 concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacological Research, 111, 394–404.

Hoppstädter, J., Hachenthal, N., Valbuena-Perez, J. V., Lampe, S., Astanina, K., Kunze, M. M., … Kiemer, A. K. (2016). Induction of Glucocorticoid-induced Leucine Zipper (GILZ) Contributes to anti-inflammatory effects of the natural product curcumin in macrophages. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291(44), 22949–22960. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M116.733253

Sun, J., Chen, F., Braun, C., Zhou, Y.-Q., Rittner, H., Tian, Y.-K., … Ye, D.-W. (2018). Role of curcumin in the management of pathological pain. Phytomedicine, 48, 129–140.

Herzerkrankungen

Quiles, J. L., Mesa, M. D., Ramírez-Tortosa, C. L., Aguilera, C. M., Battino, M., Gil, Á., & Ramírez-Tortosa, M. C. (2002). Curcuma longa extract supplementation reduces oxidative stress and attenuates aortic fatty streak development in rabbits. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 22, 1225–1231.

Deters, M., Klabunde, T., Meyer, H., Resch, K., & Kaever, V. (2003). Effects of curcumin on cyclosporine-induced cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia and on cyclosporine metabolism in the rat. Planta Medica, 69(4), 337–343.

Yuan, H.-Y., Kuang, S.-Y., Zheng, X., Ling, H.-Y., Yang, Y.-B., Yan, P.-K., … Liao, D.-F. (2008). Curcumin inhibits cellular cholesterol accumulation by regulating SREBP-1/caveolin-1 signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 29(5), 555–563.

Alwi, I., Santoso, T., Suyono, S., Sutrisna, B., Suyatna, F. D., Kresno, S. B., & Ernie, S. (2008). The effect of curcumin on lipid level in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Acta Medica Indonesiana.

Wongcharoen, W., & Phrommintikul, A. (2009). The protective role of curcumin in cardiovascular diseases. International Journal of Cardiology, 133(2), 145–151.

Ejaz, A., Wu, D., Kwan, P., & Meydani, M. (2009). Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice. The Journal of Nutrition, 139(5), 919–925.

Kim, M., & Kim, Y. (2010). Hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin via up-regulation of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase in rats fed a high fat diet. Nutrition Research and Practice, 4(3), 191–195.

Feng, D., Ohlsson, L., & Duan, R.-D. (2010). Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells by down-regulation of NPC1L1 expression. Lipids in Health and Disease, 9, 40.

Zhao, J., Sun, X.-B., Ye, F., & Tian, W.-X. (2011). Suppression of fatty acid synthase, differentiation and lipid accumulation in adipocytes by curcumin. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 351(1–2), 19–28.

Sugawara, J., Akazawa, N., Miyaki, A., Choi, Y., Tanabe, Y., Imai, T., & Maeda, S. (2012). Effect of endurance exercise training and curcumin intake on central arterial hemodynamics in postmenopausal women: pilot study. American Journal of Hypertension, 25(6), 651–656.

Pivovarova, O., Gögebakan, Ö., Klöting, N., Sparwasser, A., Weickert, M. O., Haddad, I., … Rudovich, N. (2012). Insulin up-regulates natriuretic peptide clearance receptor expression in the subcutaneous fat depot in obese subjects: A missing link between CVD risk and obesity? Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 97(5), 731–739.

Prathapan, a., Krishna, M. S., Lekshmi, P. C., Raghu, K. G., & Menon, a. N. (2012). Modulation of adipogenesis and glucose uptake by Curcuma longa extract in 3T3L1 and L6 cell lines – An in vitro study. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2, 163–165.

Khajehdehi, P., Zanjaninejad, B., Aflaki, E., Nazarinia, M., Azad, F., Malekmakan, L., & Dehghanzadeh, G. R. (2012). Oral Supplementation of Turmeric Decreases Proteinuria, Hematuria, and Systolic Blood Pressure in Patients Suffering From Relapsing or Refractory Lupus Nephritis: A Randomized and Placebo-controlled Study. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 22(1), 50–57.

Akazawa, N., Choi, Y., Miyaki, A., Tanabe, Y., Sugawara, J., Ajisaka, R., & Maeda, S. (2012). Curcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Nutrition Research, 32(10), 795–799.

Bradford, P. G. (2013). Curcumin and obesity. BioFactors (Oxford, England), 39(1), 78–87.

Karimian, M. S., Pirro, M., Johnston, T. P., Majeed, M., & Sahebkar, A. (2017). Curcumin and Endothelial Function: Evidence and Mechanisms of Protective Effects. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(17), 2462–2473.

Qin, S., Huang, L., Gong, J., Shen, S., Huang, J., Ren, H., & Hu, H. (2017). Efficacy and safety of turmeric and curcumin in lowering blood lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular risk factors: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition Journal.

Tabeshpour, J., Hashemzaei, M., & Sahebkar, A. (2018). The regulatory role of curcumin on platelet functions. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry.

Li, H., Sureda, A., Devkota, H. P., Pittala, V., Barreca, D., Silva, A. S., … Nabavi, S. M. (2019). Curcumin, the golden spice in treating cardiovascular diseases. Biotechnology Advances.

Diabetes und metabolisches Syndrom

Kuroda, M., Mimaki, Y., Nishiyama, T., Mae, T., Kishida, H., Tsukagawa, M., … Kitahara, M. (2005). Hypoglycemic effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa L. rhizomes) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(5), 937–939.

Pari, L., & Murugan, P. (2007). Changes in glycoprotein components in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes: influence of tetrahydrocurcumin from Curcuma longa. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 62(1), 25–29.

Gonzales, A. M., & Orlando, R. A. (2008). Curcumin and resveratrol inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated cytokine expression in adipocytes. Nutrition and Metabolism, 5(1).

Yu, Y., Hu, S., & Yan, H. (2008). [The study of insulin resistance and leptin resistance on the model of simplicity obesity rats by curcumin]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 42(11), 818–822.

Weisberg, S. P., Leibel, R., & Tortoriello, D. V. (2008). Dietary curcumin significantly improves obesity-associated inflammation and diabetes in mouse models of diabesity. Endocrinology, 149(7), 3549–3558.

Ejaz, A., Wu, D., Kwan, P., & Meydani, M. (2009). Curcumin Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Angiogenesis and Obesity in C57/BL Mice. Journal of Nutrition, 139(5), 919–925.

Lee, Y. K., Lee, W. S., Hwang, J. T., Kwon, D. Y., Surh, Y. J., & Park, O. J. (2009). Curcumin exerts antidifferentiation effect through AMPKalpha-PPAR-gamma in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and antiproliferatory effect through AMPKalpha-COX-2 in cancer cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(1), 305–310.

Wang, S. L., Ying, L., Ying, W., Chen, Y. F., Na, L. X., Li, S. T., & Sun, C. H. (2009). Curcumin, a potential inhibitor of Up-regulation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 induced by palmitate in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through NF-kappaB and JNK pathway. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 22(1), 32–39.

Nwozo, S., Adaramoye, O., & Ajaiyeoba, E. (2009). Oral administration of extract from Curcuma longa lowers blood glucose and attenuates alloxan-induced hyperlipidemia in diabetic rabbits. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(5), 625–628.

Feng, D., Ohlsson, L., & Duan, R.-D. (2010). Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells by down-regulation of NPC1L1 expression. Lipids in Health and Disease, 9, 40.

Kim, M., & Kim, Y. (2010). Hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin via up-regulation of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase in rats fed a high fat diet. Nutrition Research and Practice, 4(3), 191–5.

Wickenberg, J., Ingemansson, S. L., & Hlebowicz, J. (2010). Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects. Nutrition Journal, 9, 43.

Alappat, L., & Awad, A. B. (2010). Curcumin and obesity: Evidence and mechanisms. Nutrition Reviews, 68(12), 729–738.

Dong, S. Z., Zhao, S. P., Wu, Z. H., Yang, J., Xie, X. Z., Yu, B. L., & Nie, S. (2011). Curcumin promotes cholesterol efflux from adipocytes related to PPARgamma-LXRalpha-ABCA1 passway. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 358(1–2), 281–285.

Zhao, J., Sun, X. B., Ye, F., & Tian, W. X. (2011). Suppression of fatty acid synthase, differentiation and lipid accumulation in adipocytes by curcumin. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 351(1–2), 19–28.

Kim, C. Y., Le, T. T., Chen, C., Cheng, J. X., & Kim, K. H. (2011). Curcumin inhibits adipocyte differentiation through modulation of mitotic clonal expansion. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 22(10), 910–920.

El-Azab, M. F., Attia, F. M., & El-Mowafy, A. M. (2011). Novel role of curcumin combined with bone marrow transplantation in reversing experimental diabetes: Effects on pancreatic islet regeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines. European Journal of Pharmacology, 658(1), 41–48.

Xie, X. Y., Kong, P. R., Wu, J. F., Li, Y., & Li, Y. X. (2012). Curcumin attenuates lipolysis stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α or isoproterenol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytomedicine, 20(1), 3–8.

Ponnusamy, S., Zinjarde, S., Bhargava, S., Rajamohanan, P. R., & Ravikumar, A. (2012). Discovering Bisdemethoxycurcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome as a potent small molecule inhibitor of human pancreatic ??-amylase, a target for type-2 diabetes. Food Chemistry, 135(4), 2638–2642.

Chuengsamarn, S., Rattanamongkolgul, S., Luechapudiporn, R., Phisalaphong, C., & Jirawatnotai, S. (2012). Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 35(November), 2121–2127.

Prathapan, a., Krishna, M. S., Lekshmi, P. C., Raghu, K. G., & Menon, a. N. (2012). Modulation of adipogenesis and glucose uptake by Curcuma longa extract in 3T3L1 and L6 cell lines – An in vitro study. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2, 163–165.

Pivovarova, O., Gögebakan, Ö., Klöting, N., Sparwasser, A., Weickert, M. O., Haddad, I., … Rudovich, N. (2012). Insulin up-regulates natriuretic peptide clearance receptor expression in the subcutaneous fat depot in obese subjects: A missing link between CVD risk and obesity? Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 97(5), 731–739.

Shao, W., Yu, Z., Chiang, Y., Yang, Y., Chai, T., Foltz, W., … Jin, T. (2012). Curcumin prevents high fat diet induced insulin resistance and obesity via attenuating lipogenesis in liver and inflammatory pathway in adipocytes. PLoS ONE, 7(1).

Wang, J., Vanegas, S. M., Du, X., Noble, T., Zingg, J. M. A., Meydani, M., … Wu, D. (2013). Caloric restriction favorably impacts metabolic and immune/inflammatory profiles in obese mice but curcumin/piperine consumption adds no further benefit. Nutrition and Metabolism, 10(1).

Bradford, P. G. (2013). Curcumin and obesity. BioFactors (Oxford, England), 39(1), 78–87.

Zhang, D.-W., Fu, M., Gao, S.-H., & Liu, J.-L. (2013). Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : ECAM, 2013, 636053.

Mohammadi, A., Sahebkar, A., Iranshahi, M., Amini, M., Khojasteh, R., Ghayour-Mobarhan, M., & Ferns, G. a. (2013). Effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on dyslipidemia in obese patients: a randomized crossover trial. Phytotherapy Research : PTR, 27(3), 374–379.

Na, L.-X., Li, Y., Pan, H.-Z., Zhou, X.-L., Sun, D.-J., Meng, M., … Sun, C.-H. (2013). Curcuminoids exert glucose-lowering effect in type 2 diabetes by decreasing serum free fatty acids: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research.

Ghosh, S. S., Bie, J., Wang, J., & Ghosh, S. (2014). Oral supplementation with non-absorbable antibiotics or curcumin attenuates western diet-induced atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance in LDLR-/-mice-role of intestinal permeability and macrophage activation. PLoS ONE, 9(9).

Na, L. X., Yan, B. L., Jiang, S., Cui, H. L., Li, Y., & Sun, C. H. (2014). Curcuminoids Target Decreasing Serum Adipocyte-fatty Acid Binding Protein Levels in Their Glucose-lowering Effect in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES.

Chuengsamarn, S., Rattanamongkolgul, S., Phonrat, B., Tungtrongchitr, R., & Jirawatnotai, S. (2014). Reduction of atherogenic risk in patients with type 2 diabetes by curcuminoid extract: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.

Ganjali, S., Sahebkar, A., Mahdipour, E., Jamialahmadi, K., Torabi, S., Akhlaghi, S., … Ghayour-Mobarhan, M. (2014). Investigation of the effects of curcumin on serum cytokines in obese individuals: a randomized controlled trial. TheScientificWorldJournal.

Di Pierro, F., Bressan, A., Ranaldi, D., Rapacioli, G., Giacomelli, L., & Bertuccioli, A. (2015). Potential role of bioavailable curcumin in weight loss and omental adipose tissue decrease: Preliminary data of a randomized, controlled trial in overweight people with metabolic syndrome. Preliminary study. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 19(21), 4195–4202.

Nabavi, S. F., Thiagarajan, R., Rastrelli, L., Daglia, M., Sobarzo-Sánchez, E., Alinezhad, H., & Nabavi, S. M. (2015). Curcumin: a natural product for diabetes and its complications. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 15(23), 2445–2455.

Panahi, Y., Hosseini, M. S., Khalili, N., Naimi, E., Soflaei, S. S., Majeed, M., & Sahebkar, A. (2016). Effects of supplementation with curcumin on serum adipokine concentrations: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrition, 32(10), 1116–1122.

Jazayeri-Tehrani, S. A., Rezayat, S. M., Mansouri, S., Qorbani, M., Alavian, S. M., Daneshi-Maskooni, M., & Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M. J. (2017). Efficacy of nanocurcumin supplementation on insulin resistance, lipids, inflammatory factors and nesfatin among obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A trial protocol. BMJ Open.

Jin, T., Song, Z., Weng, J., & Fantus, I. G. (2017). Curcumin and other dietary polyphenols: potential mechanisms of metabolic actions and therapy for diabetes and obesity. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, ajpendo.00285.2.

Pan, Y., Zhao, D., Yu, N., An, T., Miao, J., Mo, F., … Jiang, G. (2017). Curcumin improves glycolipid metabolism through regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ signalling pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese mice and 3t3-l1 adipocytes. Royal Society Open Science, 4(11).

Totsch, S. K., Meir, R. Y., Quinn, T. L., Lopez, S. A., Gower, B. A., & Sorge, R. E. (2018). Effects of a Standard American Diet and an anti-inflammatory diet in male and female mice. European Journal of Pain (United Kingdom).

Miyazawa, T., Nakagawa, K., Kim, S. H., Thomas, M. J., Paul, L., Zingg, J. M., … Meydani, M. (2018). Curcumin and piperine supplementation of obese mice under caloric restriction modulates body fat and interleukin-1β. Nutrition and Metabolism, 15(1).

Song, Z., Revelo, X., Shao, W., Tian, L., Zeng, K., Lei, H., … Jin, T. (2018). Dietary Curcumin Intervention Targets Mouse White Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Brown Adipose Tissue UCP1 Expression. Obesity, 26(3), 547–558.

Nishikawa, S., Kamiya, M., Aoyama, H., Nomura, M., Hyodo, T., Ozeki, A., … Tsuda, T. (2018). Highly Dispersible and Bioavailable Curcumin but not Native Curcumin Induces Brown-Like Adipocyte Formation in Mice. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 62(5).

Zheng, J., Cheng, J., Zheng, S., Feng, Q., & Xiao, X. (2018). Curcumin, A Polyphenolic Curcuminoid With Its Protective Effects and Molecular Mechanisms in Diabetes and Diabetic Cardiomyopathy. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9, 472.

Azhdari, M., Karandish, M., & Mansoori, A. (2019). Metabolic benefits of curcumin supplementation in patients with metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytotherapy Research : PTR, 33(5), 1289–1301.

Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen (Alzheimer)

Lim, G. P., Chu, T., Yang, F., Beech, W., Frautschy, S. a, & Cole, G. M. (2001). The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 21(21), 8370–8377.

Giri, R. K., Rajagopal, V., & Kalra, V. K. (2004). Curcumin, the active constituent of turmeric, inhibits amyloid peptide-induced cytochemokine gene expression and CCR5-mediated chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes by modulating early growth response-1 transcription factor. Journal of Neurochemistry, 91(5), 1199–1210.

Ono, K., Hasegawa, K., Naiki, H., & Yamada, M. (2004). Curcumin Has Potent Anti-Amyloidogenic Effects for Alzheimer’s ??-Amyloid Fibrils In Vitro. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 75(6), 742–750.

Yang, F., Lim, G. P., Begum, A. N., Ubeda, O. J., Simmons, M. R., Ambegaokar, S. S., … Cole, G. M. (2005a). Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid β oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280(7), 5892–5901.

Garcia-Alloza, M., Borrelli, L. A., Rozkalne, A., Hyman, B. T., & Bacskai, B. J. (2007). Curcumin labels amyloid pathology in vivo, disrupts existing plaques, and partially restores distorted neurites in an Alzheimer mouse model. Journal of Neurochemistry, 102(4), 1095–1104.

Cole, G. M., Teter, B., & Frautschy, S. A. (2007). Neuroprotective effects of curcumin. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 595, 197–212.

Hamaguchi, T., Ono, K., & Yamada, M. (2010). Curcumin and Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, 16(5), 285–297.

Karlstetter, M., Lippe, E., Walczak, Y., Moehle, C., Aslanidis, A., Mirza, M., & Langmann, T. (2011). Curcumin is a potent modulator of microglial gene expression and migration. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 8(1), 125.

Taylor, M., Moore, S., Mourtas, S., Niarakis, A., Re, F., Zona, C., … Allsop, D. (2011). Effect of curcumin-associated and lipid ligand-functionalized nanoliposomes on aggregation of the Alzheimer’s Aβ peptide. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, 7(5), 541–550.

Karlstetter, M., Lippe, E., Walczak, Y., Moehle, C., Aslanidis, A., Mirza, M., & Langmann, T. (2011). Curcumin is a potent modulator of microglial gene expression and migration. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 8(1), 125.

Ringman, J. M., Frautschy, S. A., Teng, E., Begum, A. N., Bardens, J., Beigi, M., … Cole, G. M. (2012). Oral curcumin for Alzheimer’s disease: tolerability and efficacy in a 24-week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Alzheimers Res Ther, 4(5), 43.

Eckert, G. P., Schiborr, C., Hagl, S., Abdel-Kader, R., Müller, W. E., Rimbach, G., & Frank, J. (2013). Curcumin prevents mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain of the senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8. Neurochemistry International, 62(5), 595–602.

Wang, X., Kim, J.-R., Lee, S.-B., Kim, Y.-J., Jung, M. Y., Kwon, H.-W., & Ahn, Y.-J. (2014). Effects of curcuminoids identified in rhizomes of Curcuma longa on BACE-1 inhibitory and behavioral activity and lifespan of Alzheimer’s disease Drosophila models. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14(1), 88.

Venigalla, M., Gyengesi, E., & Munch, G. (2015). Curcumin and Apigenin – novel and promising therapeutics agains chronic neuroinflamation in alzheimer’s disease. Neural Regeneration Research.

Farkhondeh, T., Samarghandian, S., Pourbagher-Shahri, A. M., & Sedaghat, M. (2019). The impact of curcumin and its modified formulations on Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Cellular Physiology.

Depressionen

Xu, Y., Ku, B. S., Yao, H. Y., Lin, Y. H., Ma, X., Zhang, Y. H., & Li, X. J. (2005). The effects of curcumin on depressive-like behaviors in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 518(1), 40–46.

Xu, Y., Ku, B., Tie, L., Yao, H., Jiang, W., Ma, X., & Li, X. (2006). Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREB. Brain Research, 1122(1), 56–64.

Kulkarni, S. K., Bhutani, M. K., & Bishnoi, M. (2008). Antidepressant activity of curcumin: Involvement of serotonin and dopamine system. Psychopharmacology, 201(3), 435–442.

Kulkarni, S. K., Dhir, A., & Akula, K. K. (2009). Potentials of Curcumin as an Antidepressant. The Scientific World JOURNAL, 9, 1233–1241.

Sookram, C., Daya, R., Tan, M., Mah, J., & Mishra, R. K. (2012). Curcumin: Implications in the treatment of central nervous system disease. Curcumin: Biosynthesis, Medicinal Uses and Health Benefits.

Bergman, J., Miodownik, C., Bersudsky, Y., Sokolik, S., Lerner, P. P., Kreinin, A., … Lerner, V. (2013). Curcumin as an add-on to antidepressive treatment: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical study. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 36(3), 73–77.

Lopresti, A. L., Maes, M., Maker, G. L., Hood, S. D., & Drummond, P. D. (2014). Curcumin for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 167, 368–375.

Sanmukhani, J., Satodia, V., Trivedi, J., Patel, T., Tiwari, D., Panchal, B., … Tripathi, C. B. (2014). Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Phytotherapy Research, 28(4), 579–585.

Yu, J.-J., Pei, L.-B., Zhang, Y., Wen, Z.-Y., & Yang, J.-L. (2015). Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 35(4), 406–410.

Al-Karawi, D., Al Mamoori, D. A., & Tayyar, Y. (2015). The role of curcumin administration in patients with major depressive disorder: mini meta-analysis of clinical trials. Phytotherapy Research, 183(October 2015), 175–183.

Chang, X. R., Wang, L., Li, J., & Wu, D. S. (2016). Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats. Brain Research, 1642, 219–225.

Kaufmann, F. N., Gazal, M., Bastos, C. R., Kaster, M. P., & Ghisleni, G. (2016). Curcumin in depressive disorders: An overview of potential mechanisms, preclinical and clinical findings. European Journal of Pharmacology.

Ng, Q. X., Koh, S. S. H., Chan, H. W., & Ho, C. Y. X. (2017). Clinical Use of Curcumin in Depression: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 18(6), 503–508.

Kanchanatawan, B., Tangwongchai, S., Sughondhabhirom, A., Suppapitiporn, S., Hemrunrojn, S., Carvalho, A. F., & Maes, M. (2018). Add-on Treatment with Curcumin Has Antidepressive Effects in Thai Patients with Major Depression: Results of a Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Neurotoxicity Research, 33(3), 621–633.

Zhang, W., Guo, Y., Han, W., Yang, M., Wen, L., Wang, K., & Jiang, P. (2019). Curcumin relieves depressive-like behaviors via inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome and kynurenine pathway in rats suffering from chronic unpredictable mild stress. International Immunopharmacology, 67, 138–144.

Rheumatische Erkrankungen

Funk, J. L., Oyarzo, J. N., Frye, J. B., Chen, G., Lantz, R. C., Jolad, S. D., … Timmermann, B. N. (2006). Turmeric extracts containing curcuminoids prevent experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Natural Products, 69(3), 351–355.

Oh, S., Kyung, T.-W., & Choi, H.-S. (2008). Curcumin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by decreasing receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) in bone marrow stromal cells. Molecules and Cells, 26(5), 486–489.

Clutterbuck, A. L., Mobasheri, A., Shakibaei, M., Allaway, D., & Harris, P. (2009). Interleukin-1beta-induced extracellular matrix degradation and glycosaminoglycan release is inhibited by curcumin in an explant model of cartilage inflammation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1171, 428–35.

Mathy-Hartert, M., Jacquemond-Collet, I., Priem, F., Sanchez, C., Lambert, C., & Henrotin, Y. (2009). Curcumin inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators and metalloproteinase-3 production by chondrocytes. Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society … [et Al.], 58(12), 899–908.

Funk, J. L., Frye, J. B., Oyarzo, J. N., Zhang, H., & Timmermann, B. N. (2010). Anti-arthritic effects and toxicity of the essential oils of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(2), 842–849.

Taty Anna, K., Elvy Suhana, M. R., Das, S., Faizah, O., & Hamzaini, A. H. (2011). Anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on collagen-induced arthritis: an anatomico-radiological study. La Clinica Terapeutica, 162(3), 201–207.

Chandran, B., & Goel, A. (2012). A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytotherapy Research: PTR, 26(11), 1719–25.

Sun, J., Zhao, Y., & Hu, J. (2013). Curcumin inhibits imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation by inhibiting IL-1beta and IL-6 production in mice. PloS One, 8(6), e67078.

Shehzad, A., Rehman, G., & Lee, Y. S. (2013). Curcumin in inflammatory diseases. BioFactors, 39(1), 69–77.

Henrotin, Y., Priem, F., & Mobasheri, A. (2013). Curcumin: a new paradigm and therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of osteoarthritis: curcumin for osteoarthritis management. SpringerPlus, 2(1), 56.

Kuptniratsaikul, V., Dajpratham, P., Taechaarpornkul, W., Buntragulpoontawee, M., Lukkanapichonchut, P., Chootip, C., … Laongpech, S. (2014). Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A multicenter study. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 451–458.

Nakagawa, Y., Mukai, S., Yamada, S., Matsuoka, M., Tarumi, E., Hashimoto, T., … Nakamura, T. (2014). Short-term effects of highly-bioavailable curcumin for treating knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study. J Orthop Sci, 19(6), 933–939.

Belcaro, G., Dugall, M., Luzzi, R., Ledda, A., Pellegrini, L., Cesarone, M. R., … Errichi, M. (2014). Meriva(R)+Glucosamine versus Condroitin+Glucosamine in patients with knee osteoarthritis: an observational study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 18(24), 3959–3963.

Daily, J. W., Yang, M., & Park, S. (2016). Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint  Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Journal of Medicinal Food, 19(8), 717–729.

Amalraj, A., Varma, K., Jacob, J., Divya, C., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Stohs, S. J., & Gopi, S. (2017). A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms and Diagnostic Indicators in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, and Parallel-Group Study. Journal of Medicinal Food, jmf.2017.3930.

Darmerkrankungen und Gastrointestinaltrakt

Deters, M., Siegers, C., Hänsel, W., Schneider, K. P., & Hennighausen, G. (2000). Influence of curcumin on cyclosporin-induced reduction of biliary bilirubin and cholesterol excretion and on biliary excretion of cyclosporin and its metabolites. Planta Medica, 66(5), 429–434.

Hanai, H., Iida, T., Takeuchi, K., Watanabe, F., Maruyama, Y., Andoh, A., … Koide, Y. (2006). Curcumin Maintenance Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis: Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 4(12), 1502–1506.

Suphim, B., Prawan, A., Kukongviriyapan, U., Kongpetch, S., Buranrat, B., & Kukongviriyapan, V. (2010). Redox modulation and human bile duct cancer inhibition by curcumin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(8–9), 2265–2272.

Rajasekaran, S. A. (2011). Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, 2(1), 1.

Lee, J. H., Oh, J.-H., & Lee, Y.-J. (2012). Biliary excretion of curcumin is mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 35(5), 777–780.

Patra, D., Ahmadieh, D., & Aridi, R. (2013). Study on interaction of bile salts with curcumin and curcumin embedded in dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposome. Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 110, 296–304.

Dulbecco, P., & Savarino, V. (2013). Therapeutic potential of curcumin in digestive diseases. World Journal of Gastroenterology.

Brumatti, L., Marcuzzi, A., Tricarico, P., Zanin, V., Girardelli, M., & Bianco, A. (2014). Curcumin and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Potential and Limits of Innovative Treatments. Molecules.

Wang, Y., Wang, L., Zhu, X., Wang, D., & Li, X. (2016). Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients. Journal of Food Science, 81(7), H1800-6.

Simadibrata, M., Halimkesuma, C. C., & Suwita, B. M. (2017). Efficacy of Curcumin as Adjuvant Therapy to Induce or Maintain Remission in Ulcerative Colitis Patients: an Evidence-based Clinical Review. Acta Medica Indonesiana, 49(4), 363–368.

Ng, Q. X., Soh, A. Y. Sen, Loke, W., Venkatanarayanan, N., Lim, D. Y., & Yeo, W.-S. (2018). A Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Use of Curcumin for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7(10).

Lukefahr, A. L., McEvoy, S., Alfafara, C., & Funk, J. L. (2018). Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis associated with turmeric dietary supplement use. BMJ Case Reports, 2018.

Farzaei, M. H., Zobeiri, M., Parvizi, F., El-Senduny, F. F., Marmouzi, I., Coy-Barrera, E., … Abdollahi, M. (2018). Curcumin in Liver Diseases: A Systematic Review of the Cellular Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress and Clinical Perspective. Nutrients, 10(7).

Goodarzi, R., Sabzian, K., Shishehbor, F., & Mansoori, A. (2019). Does turmeric/curcumin supplementation improve serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytotherapy Research : PTR, 33(3), 561–570.

Kwiecien, S., Magierowski, M., Majka, J., Ptak-Belowska, A., Wojcik, D., Sliwowski, Z., … Brzozowski, T. (2019). Curcumin: A Potent Protectant against Esophageal and Gastric Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(6).

Krebs

Jaruga, E., Salvioli, S., Dobrucki, J., Chrul, S., Bandorowicz-Pikuła, J., Sikora, E., … Bartosz, G. (1998). Apoptosis-like, reversible changes in plasma membrane asymmetry and permeability, and transient modifications in mitochondrial membrane potential induced by curcumin in rat thymocytes. FEBS Letters, 433(3), 287–293.

Plummer, S. M., Holloway, K. a, Manson, M. M., Munks, R. J., Kaptein, a, Farrow, S., & Howells, L. (1999). Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression in colon cells by the chemopreventive agent curcumin involves inhibition of NF-kappaB activation via the NIK/IKK signalling complex. Oncogene, 18(44), 6013–6020.

Ramírez-Tortosa, M. C., Mesa, M. D., Aguilera, M. C., Quiles, J. L., Baró, L., Ramirez-Tortosa, C. L., … Gil, A. (1999). Oral administration of a turmeric extract inhibits LDL oxidation and has hypocholesterolemic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, 147(2), 371–378.

Cheng, A. L., Hsu, C. H., Lin, J. K., Hsu, M. M., Ho, Y. F., Shen, T. S., … Hsieh, C. Y. (2001). Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Research, 21(4B), 2895–2900.

Chauhan, D. P. (2002). Chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin for colorectal cancer. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 8(19), 1695–1706.

Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Yun, G., & Lu, Z. Z. (2002). Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and curcumin inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, a group 1 carcinogen. Anticancer Research, 22(6C), 4179–4181.

Aratanechemuge, Y., Komiya, T., Moteki, H., Katsuzaki, H., Imai, K., & Hibasami, H. (2002). Selective induction of apoptosis by ar-turmerone isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L) in two human leukemia cell lines, but not in human stomach cancer cell line. Int J Mol Med, 9(5), 481–484.

Aggarwal, B. B., Kumar, A., & Bharti, A. C. (2003). Anticancer Potential of Curcumin: Preclinical and Clinical Studies. Anticancer Research, 398(1 A), 363–398.

Sharma, R. a., Euden, S. a., Platton, S. L., Cooke, D. N., Shafayat, A., Hewitt, H. R., … Steward, W. P. (2004). Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: Biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clinical Cancer Research, 10(20), 6847–6854.

Garcea, G., Berry, D. P., Jones, D. J. L., Singh, R., Dennison, A. R., Farmer, P. B., … Gescher, A. J. (2005). Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: Assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 14(1), 120–125.

Hanai, H., Iida, T., Takeuchi, K., Watanabe, F., Maruyama, Y., Andoh, A., … Koide, Y. (2006). Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : The Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 4(12), 1502–1506.

Cruz-Correa, M., Shoskes, D. A., Sanchez, P., Zhao, R., Hylind, L. M., Wexner, S. D., & Giardiello, F. M. (2006). Combination Treatment With Curcumin and Quercetin of Adenomas in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 4(8), 1035–1038.

Shishodia, S., Singh, T., & Chaturvedi, M. M. (2007). Modulation of transcription factors by curcumin. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 595, 127–148.

Li, M., Zhang, Z., Hill, D. L., Wang, H., & Zhang, R. (2007). Curcumin, a dietary component, has anticancer, chemosensitization, and radiosensitization effects by down-regulating the MDM2 oncogene through the PI3K/mTOR/ETS2 pathway. Cancer Research, 67(5), 1988–1996.

Johnson, J. J., & Mukhtar, H. (2007). Curcumin for chemoprevention of colon cancer. Cancer Letters, 255(2), 170–181.

Dhillon, N., Aggarwal, B. B., Newman, R. A., Wolff, R. A., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Abbruzzese, J. L., … Kurzrock, R. (2008). Phase II trial of curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 14(14), 4491–4499.

Park, J. H., Park, K. K., Kim, M. J., Hwang, J. K., Park, S. K., & Chung, W. Y. (2008). Cancer chemoprotective effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Phytotherapy Research : PTR, 22(5), 695–698.

López-Lázaro, M. (2008). Anticancer and carcinogenic properties of curcumin: Considerations for its clinical development as a cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 52(SUPPL. 1), 103–127.

Dhillon, N., Aggarwal, B. B., Newman, R. A., Wolff, R. A., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Abbruzzese, J. L., … Kurzrock, R. (2008). Phase II trial of curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 14(14), 4491–4499.

Badmaev, V., Aggarwal, B. B., Fiala, M., Majeed, M., Golombick, T., & Diamond, T. (2008). Curcuminoids from Curcuma longa in the fight against cancer and age related disorders. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism, 20(2), 57–63.

Binion, D. G., Otterson, M. F., & Rafiee, P. (2008). Curcumin inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells through COX-2 and MAPK inhibition. Gut, 57(11), 1509–1517.

Chen, H.-W., Lee, J.-Y., Huang, J.-Y., Wang, C.-C., Chen, W.-J., Su, S.-F., … Yang, P.-C. (2008). Curcumin inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis through the tumor suppressor HLJ1. Cancer Research, 68(18), 7428–7438.

Bhutia, Y. D., Saini, M., Sharma, A. K., Sharma, B., & Swarup, D. (2009). Efficacy of Curcuma longa extract against DMBA induced skin cancer in rats. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 36(2), 291–296.

Ravindran, J., Prasad, S., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2009). Curcumin and cancer cells: how many ways can curry kill tumor cells selectively? The AAPS Journal, 11(3), 495–510.

Arezoomand, R., Zarghami, N., Rahmati, M., Pourhassan-Moghaddam, M., Nejati-Koshki, K., Delazar, a, … Maleki, M. J. (2010). The inhibitory effect of curcuma longa total extract on telomerase gene expression and activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16(3), 131–138.

Bar-Sela, G., Epelbaum, R., & Schaffer, M. (2010). Curcumin as an anti-cancer agent: review of the gap between basic and clinical applications. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 17, 190–197.

Bower, M. R., Aiyer, H. S., Li, Y., & Martin, R. C. (2010). Chemoprotective effects of curcumin in esophageal epithelial cells exposed to bile acids. World J Gastroenterol, 16(33), 4152–4158.

Ide, H., Tokiwa, S., Sakamaki, K., Nishio, K., Isotani, S., Muto, S., … Horie, S. (2010). Combined inhibitory effects of soy isoflavones and curcumin on the production of prostate-specific antigen. Combined Inhibitory Effects of Soy Isoflavones and Curcumin on the Production of Prostate-Specific Antigen., 70(10), 1127–1133.

Kizhakkayil, J., Thayyullathil, F., Chathoth, S., Hago, A., Patel, M., & Galadari, S. (2010). Modulation of curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis by PI3K inhibitor in MCF-7 cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 394(3), 476–481.

Hilchie, A. L., Furlong, S. J., Sutton, K., Richardson, A., Robichaud, M. R. J., Giacomantonio, C. a, … Hoskin, D. W. (2010). Curcumin-induced apoptosis in PC3 prostate carcinoma cells is caspase-independent and involves cellular ceramide accumulation and damage to mitochondria. Nutrition and Cancer, 62(3), 379–389.

Perry, M.-C., Demeule, M., Régina, A., Moumdjian, R., & Béliveau, R. (2010). Curcumin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in glioblastoma xenografts. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 54, 1192–1201.

Yue, G. G. L., Chan, B. C. L., Hon, P. M., Lee, M. Y. H., Fung, K. P., Leung, P. C., & Lau, C. B. S. (2010). Evaluation of in vitro anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activities of compounds isolated from Curcuma longa. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(8–9), 2011–2020.

Suphim, B., Prawan, A., Kukongviriyapan, U., Kongpetch, S., Buranrat, B., & Kukongviriyapan, V. (2010). Redox modulation and human bile duct cancer inhibition by curcumin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(8–9), 2265–2272.

Lim, C.-B., Ky, N., Ng, H.-M., Hamza, M. S., & Zhao, Y. (2010). Curcuma wenyujin extract induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 9(1), 36–49.

Mohammad, P., Nosratollah, Z., Mohammad, R., Abbas, A., & Javad, R. (2010). The inhibitory effect of Curcuma longa extract on telomerase activity in A549 lung cancer cell line. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(6), 912–919.

Carroll, R. E., Benya, R. V, Turgeon, D. K., Vareed, S., Neuman, M., Rodriguez, L., … Brenner, D. E. (2011). Phase IIa clinical trial of curcumin for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Prevention Research (Philadelphia, Pa.), 4(3), 354–364. https://doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0098

Kuo, C.-L., Wu, S.-Y., Ip, S.-W., Wu, P.-P., Yu, C.-S., Yang, J.-S., … Chung, J.-G. (2011). Apoptotic death in curcumin-treated NPC-TW 076 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells is mediated through the ROS, mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-3-dependent signaling responses. International Journal of Oncology, 39(2), 319–328.

El-Azab, M., Hishe, H., Moustafa, Y., & El-Awady, E. S. (2011). Anti-angiogenic effect of resveratrol or curcumin in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 652(1–3), 7–14.

Chen, X., Pei, L., Zhong, Z., Guo, J., Zhang, Q., & Wang, Y. (2011). Anti-tumor potential of ethanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton against breast cancer cells. Phytomedicine, 18(14), 1238–1243.

Schaffer, M., Schaffer, P. M., Zidan, J., & Bar Sela, G. (2011). Curcuma as a functional food in the control of cancer and inflammation. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(6), 588–597.

Yallapu, M. M., Jaggi, M., & Chauhan, S. C. (2012). Curcumin nanoformulations: A future nanomedicine for cancer. Drug Discovery Today, 17(1–2), 71–80.

Golombick, T., Diamond, T. H., Manoharan, A., & Ramakrishna, R. (2012). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, and curcumin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over 4g study and an open-label 8g extension study. American Journal of Hematology, 87(5), 455–460.

Anand, K., Sarkar, A., Kumar, A., Ambasta, R. K., & Kumar, P. (2012). Combinatorial Antitumor Effect of Naringenin and Curcumin Elicit Angioinhibitory Activities In Vivo. Nutrition and Cancer, 64(5), 714–724.

Liu, H., Liang, Y., Wang, L., Tian, L., Song, R., Han, T., … Liu, L. (2012). In vivo and in vitro suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma by EF24, a curcumin analog. PloS One, 7(10), e48075.

Cho, Y. A., Lee, W., & Choi, J. S. (2012). Effects of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, in rats: Possible role of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibition by curcumin. Pharmazie.

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